One of the ultimate architectural problems that humanity faces in the passage of years is the energy crisis and the increased building requirements from the continuously increasing world population. The solution in the particular theme is “underground development”.
Aim of this research is the approach and the study of these constructions, the knowledge of their characteristics, the need for natural ventilation, lighting and cooling, as well as the advantages and disadvantages that they offer.
Through the plurality of examples, the historical development of underground growth and the way the issue is approached in different countries of the world are easily understood.
Historically, people turned to underground habitation not by choice, but by necessity. On the one hand, the protection from wild animals, on the other hand, the protection from extreme weather conditions led people to these constructions.
Today, the excessive energy consumption and the increased concentration of the built environment are the main reasons that led people to underground constructions. Thereby, there are various types of underground residences, each with advantages and disadvantages. Difficulties, such as natural ventilation and lighting are dealt with pioneering and innovative ideas. Meanwhile, town centers, which are full of tall and bulky buildings, are discharged.
Considering earth as welcoming place for habitation and work, a new chapter opens with more favorable conditions for the environment, re-defined the limits of sustainable space, giving solutions to basic problems of the urban fabric. Thus, the earth does not only constitute the base on which constructions are built but it is residence itself for the people.