The present research presents the world’s current state as the climate change; the depletion of natural recourses; the waste of energy and particularly the impact of the construction activity on the environment. Afterwards different alternative building techniques are beings studied such as adobe, rammed earth, cob, earthbags and bricks of ice and salt. Through the analysis of each technique the following are being identified: their contribution to the enhancement and energy performance of the buildings and the way they ensure the optimal environmental conditions for the users. In the final stage the analysis is focused specifically on the use of straw bales as a building material. Which are the different technique approaches with straw bales including examples and technical descriptions. The advantages, disadvantages and installation risks of the specific systems are being interpreted as well as the reliability in the materialization and their evaluation.