During the Paleolithic era human beings believed themselves as an integral part of the natural environment which they used to call “Great Mother”. This cultural belief changed during the Neolithic era, with human’s first attempts to control the natural environment. At this time, as the distinction between cultivated and uncultivated land appears, the occurrence of the concept of wilderness also appears for the first time. At the time of the Industrial Revolution there was a large increase in the population of the developed countries gathering in urban centers. This has resulted in the restriction of wild areas and the reinforcement of the views of the classics, that man can survive without the need of the natural environment, views that seemed to change since the early 19th century, where the creation of green spaces within the cities has been observed, in a human effort to improve living standards. The present research work is a dialectical effort that discusses these relations between cities and natural enviroment, as phases or moments of a larger urban process, a process in which the potential of urban development is internally revealed, enriched and reaches its absolute denial in the modern metropolis. Its main purpose is to enable the reader to see through this process, the internal links between the different periods of urban history and to realize that urbanism must be seen as a development that places us in a unique position in order to overcome the city as such and create a new type of community, a type that combines the best features of urban life and life in the nature within a harmonized future society. The last pages suggest how such a community might look like.