This research is about fairytales and their structure. It starts with the meaning of myth and fairytale by describing their characteristics and specific examples. The biggest part of it is about the different studies on it, since the 18th century. Fairytale has been studied and interpreted in many different ways and from completely different standpoints. Some, like brothers Grimm and the supporters of Finland School, made mostly a historic research and others studied it on their contemporary context, such as structuralists and functionalists. All of them tried to answer the question of the similarity of fairytales around the world. The most important figures in the field of fairytale research are Vladimir Propp and Claude Levi-Strauss. The first proposed a model derived from 100 Russian fairy tales which can be applied in all magic tales and the second with his fieldwork in 'primitive' cultures of America, who, through the study of their myths, pointed out the contradictions that govern their structure, and derive from the actual operation of the human mind.